Abū ‘Alī al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Abd Allāh ibn Sīnā’, known as Abū Alī Sīnā (Persian: Ibn Sīnā (but most commonly known in English by his Latinized name Avicenna (Greek: Aβιτζιανός, Avitzianós), (c. 980 – 1037) was a polymath of Persian origin and the foremost physician and philosopher of his time. He was also an astronomer, chemist, geologist, Hafiz, Islamic psychologist, Islamic scholar, Islamic theologian, logician, paleontologist, mathematician, Maktab teacher, physicist, poet, and scientist.
Ibn Sīnā studied medicine under a physician named Koushyar. He wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived. In particular, 150 of his surviving
treatises concentrate on philosophy and 40 of them concentrate on medicine. His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, and The Canon of Medicine, which was a standard medical text at many medieval universities. The Canon of Medicinewas used as a text-book in the universities of Montpellier and Louvain as late as 1650.
Ibn Sīnā developed a medical system that combined his own personal experience with that of Islamic medicine, the medical system of the Greek physician Galen, Aristotelian metaphysics
(Avicenna was one of the main interpreters of Aristotle), and ancient Persian, Mesopotamian and Indian medicine. Ibn Sīnā is considered the father of modern medicine and clinical
pharmacology particularly for his discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases, the introduction of quarantine to limit the spread of contagious diseases, the introduction of
experimental medicine, evidence-based medicine, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, efficacy tests, clinical pharmacology neuropsychiatry, the idea of the syndrome, and the importance of dietetics and the influence of climate and environment on health.