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Category Archives: Islamic Scientist


Category : Islamic Scientist


Abū ‘Alī al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Abd Allāh ibn Sīnā’, known as Abū Alī Sīnā (Persian: Ibn Sīnā (but most commonly known in English by his Latinized name Avicenna (Greek: Aβιτζιανός, Avitzianós), (c. 980 – 1037) was a polymath of Persian origin and the foremost physician and philosopher of his time. He was also an astronomer, chemist, geologist, Hafiz, Islamic psychologist, Islamic scholar, Islamic theologian, logician, paleontologist, mathematician, Maktab teacher, physicist, poet, and scientist.

Ibn Sīnā studied medicine under a physician named Koushyar. He wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived. In particular, 150 of his surviving
treatises concentrate on philosophy and 40 of them concentrate on medicine. His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, and The Canon of Medicine, which was a standard medical text at many medieval universities. The Canon of Medicinewas used as a text-book in the universities of Montpellier and Louvain as late as 1650.

Ibn Sīnā developed a medical system that combined his own personal experience with that of Islamic medicine, the medical system of the Greek physician Galen, Aristotelian metaphysics
(Avicenna was one of the main interpreters of Aristotle), and ancient Persian, Mesopotamian and Indian medicine. Ibn Sīnā is considered the father of modern medicine and clinical
pharmacology particularly for his discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases, the introduction of quarantine to limit the spread of contagious diseases, the introduction of
experimental medicine, evidence-based medicine, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, efficacy tests, clinical pharmacology neuropsychiatry, the idea of the syndrome, and the importance of dietetics and the influence of climate and environment on health.

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Al Ghazali

Category : Islamic Scientist


Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī (1058–1111) (Persian, often Algazel in English, was born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia.

He was an Islamic theologian, jurist, philosopher, cosmologist, psychologist and mystic of Persian origin, and remains one of the most celebrated scholars in the history of Sunni Islamic thought.

He is considered a pioneer of methodic doubt and skepticism, and in one of his major works, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, he changed the course of early Islamic philosophy,
shifting it away from an Islamic metaphysics influenced by ancient Greek and Hellenistic philosophy, and towards an Islamic philosophy based on cause-and-effect that was determined
by God or intermediate angels, a theory now known as occasionalism.

Ghazali has sometimes been acclaimed by secular historians such as William Montgomery Watt to be the greatest Muslim after Muhammad (traditionally among Muslims, the greatest Muslims
after the Prophet, according to authentic hadith, is the generation of his contemporaries). Besides his work that successfully changed the course of Islamic philosophy—the early Islamic
Neoplatonism developed on the grounds of Hellenistic philosophy, for example, was so successfully refuted by Ghazali that it never recovered—he also brought the orthodox Islam of
his time in close contact with Sufism. The orthodox theologians still went their own way, and so did the mystics, but both developed a sense of mutual appreciation which ensured that no
sweeping condemnation could be made by one for the practices of the other.

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Al Biruni

Category : Islamic Scientist

Abu Rayhan Biruni

Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Bīrūnī (Persian:, often known as Alberuni, Al Beruni or variants, (born 5 September 973 in Kath, Khwarezm (now in Uzbekistan), died 13 December 1048 in Ghazni, today’s Afghanistan) was a Persian Muslim scholar and polymath of the 11th century.

He was a scientist and physicist, an anthropologist and comparative sociologist, an astronomer, astrologer, and chemist, an encyclopedist and historian, a geographer
and traveler, a geodesist and geologist, a mathematician, a pharmacist and psychologist, an Islamic philosopher and theologian, and a scholar and teacher.

He was the first Muslim scholar to study India and the Brahminical tradition, and has been described as the founder of Indology, the father of geodesy, and “the first anthropologist”. He
was also one of the earliest leading exponents of the experimental scientific method, and was responsible for introducing the experimental method into mechanics and mineralogy, developed comparative sociology and experimentation in psychology, and the first to conduct elaborate
experiments related to astronomical phenomena.

George Sarton, the father of the history of science, described Biruni as “one of the very greatest scientists of Islam, and, all considered, one of the greatest of all times.” A. I. Sabra described
Biruni as “one of the great scientific minds in all history.” The crater Al-Biruni on the Moon is named after him. Tashkent Technical University (formerly Tashkent Polytechnic Institute) is also named after Abu Rayhan al-Biruni and a university founded by Ahmad Shah Massoud in Kapisa is named after him.

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